Introduction: health behavior change, persuasion, attitude, attitude measurement

1. Explain the importance of health behavior change. Explain the idea of evidence-based intervention design.


2. (a) What is a paradigm (exemplary) case? Give examples. (b) Explain how the shared features of paradigm cases of a concept can provide clarification of the concept. (c) Explain how the “sharp edges” of a definition can lead to disputes over borderline cases.


3. (a) What are the shared features of exemplary cases of persuasion? (b) Explain how a successful attempt to influence is such a feature. (c) Explain how the persuader’s intending to influence is such a feature. (d) Explain how some measure of freedom on the persuadee's part is such a feature. (e) Explain how having the effects be achieved through communication is such a feature. (f) Explain how a change in the persuadee's mental state is such a feature. (g) Do paradigm cases of persuasion always involve getting the persuadee to agree with what the persuader actually believes?


4. Explain how features present in full-fledged ways in paradigm cases can, when present in only some diminished fashion, make for borderline cases of a concept.


5. (a) Identify one important mental state often changed in persuasion. (b) What is an attitude? (c) Identify some broad features of attitudes. (d) Are attitude commonly acquired  through experience? Are attitudes relatively enduring? Do attitudes influence conduct? (e) Do paradigm cases of persuasion always involve changing attitudes?


6. (a) What are semantic differential evaluative scales? Explain how they work. (b) What are single-item attitude measures? What is the feeling thermometer? Identify a circumstance in which single-item attitude measures are especially useful. Identify and explain a weakness of such measures.


7. (a) Explain how quasi-explicit belief-based attitude measures assess attitudes. (b) Identify an advantage (and accompanying disadvantage) of using such attitude measures.


8. (a) Explain how persuasion can be assessed using attitude measurement techniques. (b) Explain why other assessments (that is, other than attitude) may be useful or necessary in assessing persuasion. (c) Explain why assessments of actual (observed) persuasive effects are preferable to judgments of expected persuasive effects.

Belief-based approaches


1. (a) Explain the general idea of belief-based approaches to attitude. (b) What is a salient belief? How can one identify a person's salient beliefs about a given object? Explain how, in a survey context, one might identify the modal (average) salient beliefs about an object.


2. (a) According to the summative model of attitude, what are the two determinants of attitude? (b) What is belief strength? Describe questionnaire items that might be used to assess belief strength. (c) What is belief evaluation? Describe questionnaire items that might be used to assess belief evaluation. (d) Explain the summative model's description of how belief strength and belief evaluation combine to produce attitude; that is, describe and explain the summative model's formula. Give an example that illustrates the model's application.


3. (a) Sketch alternative strategies for attitude change suggested by the summative model. (b) Explain (and give an example of) the strategies of increasing or decreasing the evaluation of an existing salient belief, the strategies of increasing or decreasing the strength of an existing salient belief, the strategy of adding a new salient belief (of appropriate valence) about the object, and the strategy of changing the relative salience of existing beliefs. (c) Explain how this model can be useful in identifying possible foci for persuasive appeals.


4. (a) How supportive is the research evidence concerning the summative model? That is, what is the general pattern of correlations between the model's predictions and direct measures of attitude? (b) What is attribute importance? Does adding attribute importance to the summative model's formula improve the predictability of attitude? Why not? Identify two possible reasons.


5. (a) Describe the weighted averaging model. (b) What does the research evidence indicate about whether the averaging model or the summative (adding) model is superior? Identify two reasons that there is not compelling evidence to support one model over the other.



Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) (1 of 2)


1. What is elaboration? How can the degree of elaboration be assessed? Do variations in the amount of elaboration form a continuum or discrete categories? Explain the general difference between central and peripheral routes to persuasion.