Elaboration likelihood model (ELM) (2 of 2)
2. (a) Identify two broad categories of factors that influence the amount of elaboration undertaken. (b) What is elaboration motivation? Identify two factors influencing elaboration motivation. Explain how involvement (personal relevance of the topic) influences elaboration motivation. What is “need for cognition”? Explain how need for cognition influences elaboration motivation. (c) What is elaboration ability? Identify two factors influencing elaboration ability. What is “distraction”? Explain how distraction influences elaboration ability. Explain how prior knowledge influences elaboration ability.
3. (a) In central-route persuasion, what is the key determinant of persuasive outcomes? Explain. (b) Identify two factors that influence elaboration direction (valence). Explain how the message’s proattitudinal or counterattitudinal position influences elaboration direction. What is argument strength (quality)? Explain how argument quality influences elaboration direction.
4. (a) In peripheral-route persuasion, what influences the outcomes of persuasive efforts? What is a heuristic principle? What activates heuristic principles? Give three examples of heuristic principles. (b) What is the credibility heuristic? Explain how it works. Under what conditions does credibility have relatively greater influence on persuasive outcomes? (c) What is the liking heuristic? Explain how it works. Under what conditions does liking have relatively greater influence on persuasive outcomes? (d) What is the consensus heuristic? Explain how it works. Under what conditions will the consensus heuristic have relatively greater influence on persuasive outcomes?
5. (a) Explain the tradeoff between peripheral cues and elaboration direction as influences on persuasive outcomes. (b) Does increasing elaboration mean increasing persuasion? (That is, does increasing the receiver’s degree of elaboration mean increasing how much the receiver is persuaded?) Explain how distraction influences persuasive outcomes. Identify a circumstance in which distraction might reduce persuasive effectiveness, and one in which it might enhance persuasive effectiveness. (c) Are the consequences of central-route persuasion and peripheral-route persuasion identical? Identify three differences in the consequences of persuasion’s being achieved through one or the other route. How is the persistence of persuasion different? How is resistance to counterpersuasion different? How is the strength of the relationship of attitudes to intentions and behaviors different?
Reasoned action theory
1. (a) According to reasoned action theory (RAT), what is the best single predictor of voluntary behavior? (b) What are the four primary determinants of behavioral intention?
2. What is the attitude toward the behavior (AB)? Explain the difference between attitude-toward-the-behavior and attitude-toward-the-object. Describe the sorts of questionnaire items commonly used for assessing the AB.
3. What is the injunctive norm (IN)? Describe the sorts of questionnaire items commonly used for assessing the IN. What is the descriptive norm (DN)? Describe the sorts of questionnaire items commonly used for assessing the DN. Explain the difference between the injunctive norm and the descriptive norm.
4. What is perceived behavioral control (PBC)? Describe the sorts of questionnaire items commonly used for assessing PBC. How is PBC different from the other three components?
5. (a) Do these components influence intention equally? How are the relative weights of the components assessed? (b) Explain how RAT can be useful in identifying foci for persuasive efforts. If persuasion is attempted by changing one of the components, does that component need to be significantly weighted? Explain.
6. (a) What are the determinants of the AB? What is belief strength (and how is it assessed)? What is belief evaluation (and how is it assessed)? Explain how these combine to yield the AB. What does the research evidence suggest about the predictability of the AB from its determinants? (b) Identify alternative means by which the AB might be influenced. Explain (and give examples of) changing the strength or evaluation of existing salient beliefs. Explain (and give examples of) reconfiguring the set of salient beliefs (and identify two ways in which such reconfiguration might be accomplished).
7. (a) What are the determinants of the IN? What are normative beliefs (and how are they assessed)? What is motivation-to-comply (and how is it assessed)? Explain how these combine to yield the IN. What does the research evidence suggest about the predictability of the IN from its determinants? (b) Identify alternative means by which the IN might be influenced. Explain (and give examples of) changing the normative belief or motivation-to-comply that is associated with an existing salient referent. Explain (and give examples of) reconfiguring the set of salient referents (and identify two ways in which such reconfiguration might be accomplished).
8. Describe the current state of understanding of the determinants of the DN. Explain how the DN might be changed. Give an example of a message designed to influence the DN.
9. (a) Give examples of circumstances in which PBC might plausibly be the focus of a persuader's efforts. (b) Describe the current state of understanding of the determinants of PBC. (c) Describe three means of influencing PBC. (d) Explain how directly removing an obstacle to performance can influence PBC. Distinguish (and give examples of) two kinds of obstacles a persuader might try to remove. (e) Explain how successful performance of a behavior can influence PBC; give an example. (f) Explain how vicarious success can influence PBC; give an example.
10. Explain the strategy of influencing intention by changing the relative weights of the components. To which of the four components does this strategy potentially apply? In what sort of circumstance can this strategy succeed in changing intention? What is the usual pattern of association (correlation) between the AB, the IN, and the DN? What does this pattern imply about changing the weights as a means of influencing intention?
11. What does the research evidence suggest about the predictability of behavior from intention?
12. (a) Explain how the relationship between intention and behavior is affected by explicit planning about behavioral performance. Give examples of circumstances in which the task facing the persuader is that of encouraging persons to act on existing intentions; explain how a persuader might approach such a task. (b) What explains the effect of explicit-planning interventions on behavior? Does planning make intentions more positive? Does planning increase perceived behavioral control (PBC)? What are implementation intentions? Does planning encourage the development of implementation intentions? Identify two necessary conditions for explicit-planning interventions to be successful.