SPECIALIZED REASONED-ACTION-THEORY-TYPE MODELS

 

Protection motivation theory

 

1. What is the focus of protection motivation theory (PMT)? What is protection motivation? Identify the two processes underlying protection motivation.

 

2. What is threat appraisal? Identify two factors that influence threat appraisal. What is perceived threat severity? What is perceived vulnerability to threat? What is coping appraisal? Identify two factors that influence coping appraisal. What is perceived response efficacy? What is perceived self-efficacy?

 

3. Explain how the PMT framework provides a basis for thinking about adapting persuasive messages to audiences.

 

4. Explain the relationship of the four underlying PMT elements (perceived threat severity, perceived threat vulnerability, perceived response efficacy, perceived self-efficacy) to reasoned action theory (RAT). Which PMT elements relate to which RAT elements?

 

 

Health belief model

 

1. What is the focus of the health belief model (HBM)? Identify the two main factors influencing disease prevention.

 

2. What is the perceived threat of the disease? Identify two factors that influence the perceived threat of the disease. What is perceived disease severity? What is perceived disease susceptibility?

 

3. What is “perceived benefits minus perceived barriers”? Explain the idea of perceived benefits. Explain the idea of perceived barriers.

 

4. What are cues to action? What is perceived self-efficacy?

 

5. Explain the relationship of the six underlying HBM elements (perceived disease severity, perceived disease susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and perceived self-efficacy) to reasoned action theory (RAT). Which HBM elements relate to which RAT elements?

 

 

Technology acceptance model

 

1. What is the focus of the technology acceptance model? What does the model suggest is the main influence on technology use intentions?

 

2. Identify two factors that influence attitudes toward technology-use behavior. What is perceived usefulness? What is perceived ease of use? Explain the relationship of these two TAM elements (perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use) to reasoned action theory (RAT). Which TAM elements relate to which RAT elements?

 

3. Explain how protection motivation theory, the health belief model, and the technology acceptance model all distinguish different topic-specific (behavior-specific) categories of underlying beliefs. Explain how such categories can be useful in designing (adapting) persuasive messages.

 

 

 

BALANCE THEORY

 

1. What is the central tenet of consistency theories? What kind of consistency (logical or psychological) is of interest here?

 

2. (a) Identify the three perceptions with which balance theory is most centrally concerned. Does balance theory consider whether O likes/dislikes X, or whether P thinks O likes/dislikes X? (b) Describe the eight possible interrelationships of the perceptions of interest. Which of these are balanced states, and which unbalanced? Give a rule of thumb for distinguishing balanced and unbalanced states. (c) How are balanced and unbalanced states said to differ? Which sort of state represents a state of consistency? Which states are expected to be more pleasant? More stable? Preferable? Which arouse psychological tension?

 

3. (a) Explain how balance principles are related to the liking heuristic. (b) Explain how balance principle can play a role in peer pressure. (c) Explain how balance principles are related to the generally positive correlations between attitude-toward-the-behavior (AB) and the injunctive norm (IN). (d) Explain how balance principles can play a role in the effects of celebrity product endorsements. Why is the believability of the endorsement important?

 

4. (a) Explain how balance theory offers a crude representation of consistency processes. Does balance theory acknowledge degrees of liking? Degrees of issue importance? Degrees of consistency? (b) How supportive is the research evidence concerning balance theory? Give examples of domains in which balance theory's expectations have been confirmed (examples of confirming evidence). Identify one area in which balance theory's expectations have not been confirmed.

 

 

 

COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY

 

1. (a) What is a cognitive element (cognition)? (b) What are the possible relationships between two cognitions? Explain how two cognitions can be irrelevant to each other; explain how two cognitions can be consistent with each other; explain how two cognitions can be inconsistent with each other. (c) When are two cognitions said to be in a dissonant relationship?

 

2. (a) What are the properties of dissonance? What sort of state is it? (b) Can dissonance vary in magnitude? (c) What factors influence the degree of dissonance experienced? Explain how the relative proportion of consonant and dissonant elements influences dissonance. Explain how the importance of the elements and the issue influence dissonance. (d) Describe and explain two basic ways of reducing dissonance.

 

3. (a) Explain how choice (decision-making) inevitably arouses dissonance. (b) Is dissonance a pre-decisional or post-decisional state? What state is a decision-maker said to be in before having made the decision? What state is a decision-maker said to be in after having made the decision? (c) How can dissonance be reduced following a decision? What is postdecisional spreading of alternatives? Has research commonly detected postdecisional spreading of alternatives? (d) How is regret manifest following a decision? Does regret precede or follow dissonance reduction? Explain how regret can lead to a reversal of a decision. (e) Explain the function of follow-up persuasive efforts in the context of postdecisional processes.