COGNITIVE DISSONANCE THEORY (continued)
4. (a) What is induced compliance? What is counterattitudinal advocacy? (b) Explain the dissonance theory view of induced-compliance situations. What is the key influence on the amount of dissonance experienced in such situations? Explain the relationship between incentive and dissonance in such situations. (c) Explain, from a dissonance perspective, the operation of low-price offers. From the marketer's point of view, what is the ideal amount of incentive to offer? (d) Explain, from a dissonance perspective, the operation of promotions that invite consumers to send in essays explaining why they like the product (or to send in advertisements, etc.), in return for being entered in a prize drawing. (e) Explain, from a dissonance perspective, the effects of insufficient incentive for counterattitudinal action. When might a persuader want to offer such insufficient incentive? (f) Identify a limiting condition on the occurrence of the predicted dissonance effects in induced-compliance situations. How is freedom of choice such a condition?
5. (a) What is hypocrisy induction? Identify a common persuasive situation in which hypocrisy induction might be useful to a persuader. (b) What two things are made salient in inducing feelings of hypocrisy? (c) Explain how a persuader can use hypocrisy induction to change behavior; identify a necessary condition for such effects. Explain how and why hypocrisy-induction efforts might backfire.
6. (a) What is the selective exposure hypothesis? Explain how the hypothesis reflects the main tenets of dissonance theory. (b) Describe the usual research design for studying selective exposure. In such designs, what sort of result represents evidence of selective exposure?
7. (a) Is there evidence of a general preference for supportive information? Is this a strong preference? (b) What others factors influence information exposure? Explain how perceived information utility can influence information exposure (and can override a preference for supportive information). Explain how curiosity can influence information exposure (and can override a preference for supportive information). Explain how fairness norms can influence information exposure (and can override a preference for supportive information). (c) Identify three broad means by which advocates might seek to get a hearing for their views.
1. How do stage models describe the process of behavioral change? In the transtheoretical model (TTM), what stages are distinguished? Describe each stage: precontemplation, contemplation, planning, action, and maintenance. Is stage movement a linear process? Can people skip stages (according to the TTM)? Explain why different kinds of treatments (messages, interventions) might be needed for people at different stages of change.
2. Explain the general idea of stage-matching. According to the TTM, when should self-efficacy interventions be most effective, at early stages or later ones? What does the research evidence indicate about the appropriate timing of self-efficacy interventions? In general, what does the research evidence indicate about whether TTM-based stage-matched interventions are more effective than unmatched interventions?
3. What is decisional balance? How does decisional balance change as people progress through the stages? Is the size of the increase in the perceived importance of the pros the same as the size of the decrease in the perceived importance of the cons? Which is larger? Describe the implication of such a difference (the implication that TTM offers) for the design of effective interventions. Explain why the existing research evidence about decisional balance does not necessarily support recommendations about intervention design.
4. Explain the difference between stage models and continuum models of behavior. How can dividing an intention continuum into segments produce the appearance of a stage-like set of categories? Why is such a set of categories not a genuine stage model? Explain why, according to stage models, some intervention sequences should be more effective than others. Describe the current state of the research evidence concerning the relative effectiveness of different intervention sequences.
5. Does the TTM have well-established procedures for assessing stages? Explain the consequences of the lack of such procedures.
6. Have other stage models (besides the transtheoretical model) been developed? Have they been more successful than the TTM?