Message factors: Content (continued)
9. (a) What is a gain-framed message? A loss-framed message? (b) Describe a reason for hypothesizing that loss-framed appeals might generally be more persuasive than gain-framed appeals. What is negativity bias? Which kind of appeal is generally more persuasive? (c) Which kind of appeal is more persuasive when the message topic concerns disease prevention? Which kind of appeal is more persuasive when the message topic concerns disease detection? (d) What factors have been found to moderate the relative persuasiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals?
10. (a) What is a threat appeal? Describe the two parts of a threat appeal. (b) What is the relationship between the intensity of threat appeal content and the degree of fear aroused in receivers? Are messages with more intense content generally more persuasive than those with less intense content? Are messages that arouse greater fear generally more persuasive than those that arouse lesser amounts of fear? (c) Does the relationship between the intensity of message contents and the amount of aroused fear take the shape of an inverted U? Explain. Does the relationship between the intensity of message contents and persuasive outcomes take the shape of an inverted U? Explain. (d) Identify two conditions under which more intense threat appeals are unlikely to be more persuasive than less intense appeals. (e) Describe the extended parallel process model (EPPM). What does the EPPM add to protection motivation theory (PMT)? What is danger control? What is fear control? Describe how the activation of fear control and danger control processes varies as a function of variations in perceived threat and perceived efficacy. From the perspective of the EPPM, is high perceived threat sufficient to motivate protective action? Explain.
Message factors: Sequential request strategies
11. (a) Describe the foot-in-the-door (FITD) strategy. Give examples of the use of the FITD strategy to influence health behaviors. Identify three (not four) factors that influence the success of the FITD strategy (three moderating factors). (b) How does the presence of an obvious external justification (for initial-request compliance) influence the effectiveness of the strategy? How does the size of the initial request influence the effectiveness of the strategy? How is the strategy’s effectiveness influenced by whether the requests come from prosocial or nonprosocial organizations? (c) Is the strategy’s success affected by whether the same person makes both requests? Is the strategy’s success affected by whether the two requests are substantively related (e.g., concern the same subject)? Does the time interval between the two requests influence the strategy’s success? (For example, does it matter whether the second request comes immediately after the first, as opposed to coming two or three weeks later?) (d) What is the self-perception explanation of FITD effects? Describe how that explanation accounts for the research findings concerning possible moderating factors.