Message factors: Sequential request strategies (continued)
12. (a) Describe the door-in-the-face (DITF) strategy. Give examples of the use of the DITF strategy to influence health behaviors. Identify four factors that influence the success of the DITF strategy (four moderating factors). (b) How is the success of the strategy affected by whether the same person makes the two requests? How is the success of the strategy affected by whether the two requests have the same beneficiary? How is the success of the strategy affected by the presence of a delay between the requests? How is the strategy’s effectiveness influenced by whether the requests come from prosocial or nonprosocial organizations? (c) Describe the reciprocal-concessions explanation of DITF effects. Describe how that explanation accounts for some of the observed moderating factors; describe how that explanation has a difficult time accounting for other moderating factors. Does the size of the concession (the reduction in request size from the first to the second request) influence the success of the strategy? Is that result consistent or inconsistent with the reciprocal-concessions explanation? (d) Describe the guilt-based explanation of DITF effects. Describe how that explanation accounts for some of the observed moderating factors; describe how that explanation has a difficult time account for other moderating factors. Do guilt-reduction behaviors necessarily involve making amends to the person injured by the guilt-producing behavior? Explain how DITF effects might reflect a combination of reciprocity-based and guilt-based processes. (e) Complete this sentence: In designing a DITF application, one should make sure that rejection of the initial request . . .
1. Are people in positive moods generally more easily persuaded than people in negative moods? Describe the effect of variation in moods on the extensiveness of message processing. Does mood influence elaboration motivation? elaboration ability? both?
2. What is reactance? How does reactance influence message persuasiveness? Describe two component elements of reactance aroused by persuasive messages. Identify a message feature that might arouse reactance. Describe how persuaders might minimize the arousal of reactance.
Influencing resistance to persuasion
1. (a) Describe the general idea of inoculation against persuasion. Describe the biological (biomedical) metaphor underlying inoculation against persuasion. Identify two general ways persons might be made resistant to a disease virus. Describe supportive medical treatments; describe how inoculation against disease works. (b) Describe supportive treatments for inducing resistance to persuasion. Describe refutational (inoculation) treatments for inducing resistance to persuasion. (c) Do supportive treatments create resistance to persuasion? Do refutational treatments create resistance to persuasion? Which kind of treatment, supportive or refutational, is more effective in creating resistance to persuasion? (d) Do refutational treatments create resistance only to the particular attack argument that is refuted, or does the resistance generalize to other attack arguments? (e) How effective is the combination of supportive and refutational treatments (compared to the effectiveness of supportive treatments alone) in conferring resistance to persuasion? Explain how the combination of supportive and refutational treatments is equivalent to a refutational two-sided message.
2. (a) Can warning a person of an impending counterattitudinal message create resistance to persuasion? (b) Explain the mechanism by which warning confers resistance to persuasion. Identify three factors that influence the effectiveness of warnings at creating resistance. (c) How is the effectiveness of warnings influenced by the receiver's degree of involvement (personal relevance of the topic)? (d) How is the effectiveness of warnings influenced by distraction? (e) How is the effectiveness of warnings influenced by the length of the time interval between the warning and the message?
3. (a) What is refusal-skill training? How is refusal-skill training meant to create resistance to persuasion? (b) Is it possible to teach refusal skills effectively? What are the most important program elements in teaching refusal skills? (c) What effect do refusal-skill training programs have on substance use/misuse? (d) Describe how refusal-skill training and inoculation represent different ways of inducing resistance to persuasion.
Health communication campaigns
1. What is a communication campaign? Identify and describe the broad steps involved in designing and evaluating a campaign.
2. (b) How does one identify the campaign’s aims? (That is, what exactly is to be specified?) What is a target behavior? Give examples. What is a target audience? Give examples.
3. (a) What is formative research? Identify three broad purposes of formative research. (b) Describe what is involved in identifying campaign foci (message themes). Describe the role of general theoretical frameworks (e.g., reasoned action theory) in formative research. Explain how identifying target audiences and identifying the obstacles for that audience’s performance of the behavior are not entirely distinct undertakings. (c) Describe what is involved in planning campaign exposure. (d) Describe what is involved in designing and testing campaign messages. Explain why direct assessments of persuasive effects are preferable to judgments of expected persuasive effects for purposes of formative research.
4. (a) Identify and describe vehicles of persuasive influence other than advertising and social media (as means of campaign implementation). (b) What are school-based interventions? What are workplace-based interventions? What is media advocacy? Describe two ways in which entertainment programming can be used as a vehicle for persuasion.
5. (a) What is summative research? Identify three broad
possible purposes of summative research. (b) Explain how summative research can
be used to assess campaign effectiveness, to assess campaign implementation,
and to provide cost-benefit information.