Northwestern University Leadership Specialization MOOC

Social Influence course


References and Optional Readings


version date: 24 October 2015


This document is designed to provides references relevant to topics covered in the Social Influence course. It provides citations to specific studies mentioned in the lectures as well as references for related work.



For a broad treatment of persuasion theory and research:

            O’Keefe, D. J. (2016). Persuasion: Theory and research (3rd ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications. ISBN: 978-1-4522-7667-0





For a brief overview of compliance processes other than persuasion:

            Fabrigar, L. R., & Norris, M. E. (2013). Conformity, compliance, and obedience. Oxford bibliographies.  [Online]  doi:10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0075


The general idea of organizing persuasive strategies on the basis of the challenges to be addressed can be seen to have its origins in concepts such as stasis and topoi (from classical rhetoric) and stock issues (from argumentation studies); those with Anglo-American legal backgrounds may have encountered something similar in the concept of the “elements of the case,” the set of claims that must be proved in order to sustain a judgment (e.g., a conviction in a criminal proceeding). The underlying theme in these ideas is that for a given proposition, it is possible to identify a small number of issues that might be the locus of disagreement—and hence advocates should be prepared to engage each of those issues.

            Clark, R. A., & Delia, J. G. (1979). Topoi and rhetorical competence. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 65, 187-206. doi:10.1080/00335637909383470

            Katula, R. A., & Roth, R. W. (1980). A stock issues approach to writing arguments. College Composition and Communication, 31, 183-196. doi:10.2307/356373

            Hohmann, H. (2001). Stasis. In T. O. Sloane (Ed.), Encyclopedia of rhetoric (pp. 741-745). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.


The four specific challenges used to organize the course are loosely based on Fishbein and Ajzen’s (2010) reasoned action theory: 

            Fishbein, M., & Ajzen, I. (2010). Predicting and changing behavior: The reasoned action approach. New York: Psychology Press.


For some general discussions of reasoned action theory (and its variants), see:

            Ajzen, I. (2012). Martin Fishbein’s legacy: The reasoned action approach. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 640, 11–27. doi:10.1177/0002716211423363

            Yzer, M. (2013). Reasoned action theory: Persuasion as belief-based behavior change. In J. P. Dillard & L. Shen (Eds.), The Sage handbook of persuasion: Developments in theory and practice (2nd ed., pp. 120-136). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

            Head, K. J., & Noar, S. M. (2014). Facilitating progress in health behaviour theory development and modification: The reasoned action approach as a case study. Health Psychology Review, 8, 34–52. doi:10.1080/17437199.2013.778165








For a general discussion of arguments-from-consequences:

            O’Keefe, D. J. (2013). The relative persuasiveness of different forms of arguments-from-consequences: A review and integration. In E. L. Cohen (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 36 (pp. 109-135). New York: Routledge.


For some discussions of the effects of varying the antecedent in consequence-based arguments (the contrast between “if you do the advocated action then these good consequences ensue” and “if you don’t do the advocated action then these bad consequences ensue”): 

            O’Keefe, D. J., & Jensen, J. D. (2006). The advantages of compliance or the disadvantages of noncompliance? A meta-analytic review of the relative persuasive effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages. Communication Yearbook, 30, 1-43. doi:10.1207/s15567419cy3001_1

            O’Keefe, D. J., & Jensen, J. D. (2007). The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages for encouraging disease prevention behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Health Communication, 12, 623-644. doi:10.1080/10810730701615198

            O’Keefe, D. J., & Jensen, J. D. (2009). The relative persuasiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed messages for encouraging disease detection behaviors: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Communication, 59, 296-316. doi:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2009.01417.x

            Gallagher, K. M., & Updegraff, J. A. (2012). Health message framing effects on attitudes, intentions, and behavior: A meta-analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 43, 101-116. doi:10.1007/s12160-011-9308-7



CHANGING ATTITUDES: consequence desirability


The study concerning cultural differences in consequence desirability:

            Aaker, J. L., & Schmitt, B. (2001). Culture-dependent assimilation and differentiation of the self: Preferences for consumption symbols in the United States and China. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 32, 561–576.


Some review discussions concerning adapting messages to cultural differences:

            Hornikx, J., & O’Keefe, D. J. (2009). Adapting consumer advertising appeals to cultural values: A meta-analytic review of effects on persuasiveness and ad liking. Communication Yearbook, 33, 39-71.

            Davis, R. E., & Resnicow, K. (2012). The cultural variance framework for tailoring health messages. In H. Cho (Ed.), Health communication message design: Theory and practice (pp. 115-135). Los Angeles: Sage.


Some studies concerning individual differences in focusing on short-term or long-term consequences:

            Strathman, A., Gleicher, F., Boninger, D. S., & Edwards, C. S. (1994). The consideration of future consequences: Weighing immediate and distant outcomes of behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 742-752.

            Orbell, S. & Kyriakaki, M. (2008). Temporal framing and persuasion to adopt preventive health behavior:  Moderating effects of individual differences in consideration of future consequences on sunscreen use. Health Psychology, 27, 770-779.

            Zhao, X., Nan, X., Iles, I. A., & Yang, B. (2015). Temporal framing and consideration of future consequences: Effects on smokers’ and at-risk nonsmokers’ responses to cigarette health warnings. Health Communication, 30, 175-185. doi:10.1080/10410236.2014.974122


Some studies relevant to encouraging health behaviors using messages invoking non-health consequences (e.g., social consequences):

            Mahler, H. I. M., Fitzpatrick, B., Parker, P., & Lapin, A. (1997). The relative effects of a health-based versus an appearance-based intervention designed to increase sunscreen use. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 426-429.

            Pechmann, C., Zhao, G. Z., Goldberg, M. E., & Reibling, E. T. (2003). What to convey in antismoking advertisements for adolescents: The use of protection motivation theory to identify effective message themes. Journal of Marketing, 67(2), 1-18. 

            Kingsbury, J. H., Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (2015). The effects of social and health consequence framing on heavy drinking intentions among college students. British Journal of Health Psychology, 20, 212-220. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12100



CHANGING ATTITUDES: consequence likelihood


Some review discussions concerning alternative ways of influencing the perceived likelihood of consequences:

            Hornikx, J. (2005). A review of experimental research on the relative persuasiveness of anecdotal, statistical, causal, and expert evidence. Studies in Communication Sciences, 1, 205-216.

            Zebregs, S., van den Putte, B., Neijens, P., & de Graaf, A. (2015). The differential impact of statistical and narrative evidence on beliefs, attitude, and intention: A meta-analysis. Health Communication, 30, 282-289. doi:10.1080/10410236.2013.842528


Some examples of studies concerning ways of supporting claims about the likelihood of consequences:

            Tobin, S. J., & Raymundo, M. M. (2009). Persuasion by causal arguments: The motivating role of perceived causal expertise. Social Cognition, 27, 105-127.

            Bromme, R., Scharrer, L., Britt, M. A., & Stadtler, M. (2011). Effects of information comprehensibility and argument type on lay recipients’ readiness to defer to experts when deciding about scientific knowledge claims. In L. Carlson, C. Hoelscher, & T. F. Shipley (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2788 -2793). Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society. 

            Hoeken, H., Šorm, E., & Schellens, P. J. (2014). Arguing about the likelihood of consequences: Laypeople’s criteria to distinguish strong arguments from weak ones. Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 77-98. doi:10.1080/13546783.2013.807303


A discussion of how smoking causes cancer:




CHANGING ATTITUDES: handling counterarguments


Some reviews of research concerning how to handle counterarguments (refute them, overwhelm them):

            O’Keefe, D. J. (1999). How to handle opposing arguments in persuasive messages: A meta-analytic review of the effects of one-sided and two-sided messages. Communication Yearbook, 22, 209-249. 

            Eisend, M. (2006). Two-sided advertising: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23, 187-198. doi:10.1016/j.ijresmar.2005.11.001

            Eisend, M. (2007). Understanding two-sided persuasion: An empirical assessment of theoretical approaches. Psychology and Marketing, 24, 615-640. doi:10.1002/mar.20176


Some examples of studies illustrating the effects of refutation of counterarguments:

            Dycus, R. D. (1976). Relative efficacy of a one-sided vs. two-sided communication in a simulated government evaluation of proposals. Psychological Reports, 38, 787‑790.

            Allen, M., Hale, J., Mongeau, P., Berkowitz-Stafford, S., Stafford, S., Shanahan, W., Agee, P., Dillon, K., Jackson, R., & Ray, C. (1990). Testing a model of message sidedness: Three replications. Communication Monographs, 57, 275-291.

            Ford, L. A., & Smith, S. W. (1991). Memorability and persuasiveness of organ donation message strategies. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 695-711.

            Ivings, K., & Khardaji, S. (2007). Cognitive reframing of positive beliefs about smoking: A pilot study. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 35, 117-120.





SOCIAL FACTORS: descriptive norms


The Facebook study concerning descriptive norms and voting:

            Bond, R. M., Fariss, C. J., Jones, J. J., Kramer, A. D. I., Marlow, C., Settle, J. E., & Fowler, J. H. (2012). A 61-million-person experiment in social influence and political mobilization. Nature, 489, 295–298. doi:10.1038/nature11421


Some other studies of the effects of descriptive norms on voting:

            Glynn, C. J., Huge, M. E., & Lunney, C. A. (2009). The influence of perceived social norms on college students’ intention to vote. Political Communication, 26, 48-64. doi:10.1080/10584600802622860

            Gerber, A. S., & Rogers, T. (2009). Descriptive social norms and motivation to vote: Everybody’s voting and so should you. The Journal of Politics, 71, 178–191. doi:10.1017/S0022381608090117


Some studies of the effects of descriptive norms on tax compliance:

            Wenzel, M. (2005). Misperceptions of social norms about tax compliance: From theory to intervention. Journal of Economic Psychology, 26, 862-883.

            Hallsworth, M., List, J. A., Metcalfe, R. D., & Vlaev, I. (2014). The behavioralist as tax collector: Using natural field experiments to enhance tax compliance. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 20007. Available at:


Some studies of descriptive-norm interventions and college student alcohol consumption:

            Polonec, L. D., Major, A. M., & Atwood, L. E. (2006). Evaluating the believability and effectiveness of the social norms message “most students drink 0 to 4 drinks when they party.” Health Communication, 20, 23-34. doi:10.1207/s15327027hc2001_3

            Rimal, R. N. (2008). Modeling the relationship between descriptive norms and behaviors: A test and extension of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB). Health Communication, 23, 103-116. 

            Reilly, D. W. & Wood, M. D. (2008). A randomized test of a small-group interactive social norms intervention. Journal of American College Health, 57, 53-60.  doi:10.3200/JACH.57.1.53-60

            Scribner, R. A., Theall, K. P., Mason, K., Simonsen, N., Schneider, S. K., Towvim, L. G. & Dejong, W. (2011). Alcohol prevention on college campuses: The moderating effect of the alcohol environment on the effectiveness of social norms marketing campaigns. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 72, 232-239.

            DeJong, W., & Smith, S. W. (2013). Truth in advertising: Social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college drinking. In R. E. Rice & C. K. Atkin (Eds.), Public communication campaigns (4th ed., pp. 177–187). Los Angeles: Sage.


Examples of other studies of descriptive norms:

            Cameron, K. A., & Campo, S. (2006). Stepping back from social norms campaigns: Comparing normative influences to other predictors of health behaviors. Health Communication, 20, 277-288.  doi:10.1207/s15327027hc2003_7 

            Zikmund-Fisher, B. J., Windschitl, P. D., Exe, N., & Ubel, P. A. (2011). “I’ll do what they did”: Social norm information and cancer treatment decisions. Patient Education and Counseling, 85, 225–229. doi:10.1016/j.pec.2011.01.031

            de Bruijn, G. J., Visscher, I., & Mollen, S. (2015). Effects of previous fruit intake, descriptive majority norms, and message framing on fruit intake intentions and behaviors in Dutch adults across a 1-week period. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 47, 234-241. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2015.02.001

            Kormos, C., Gifford, R., & Brown, E. (2015). The influence of descriptive social norm information on sustainable transportation behavior: A field experiment. Environment and Behavior, 47, 479-501. doi:10.1177/0013916513520416

            Kim, H. K., Kim, S., & Niederdeppe, J. (2015). Scientific uncertainty as a moderator of the relationship between descriptive norm and intentions to engage in cancer risk–reducing behaviors. Journal of Health Communication, 20, 387-395. doi:10.1080/10810730.2014.977465



SOCIAL FACTORS:  prescriptive norms


A sampling of discussions and studies relevant to the role of prescriptive norms:

            Cialdini , R. B., Demaine, L. J., Sagarin, B. J., Barrett, D. W., Rhoads, K., & Winter, P. L. (2006). Managing social norms for persuasive impact. Social Influence, 1, 3-15. doi:10.1080/15534510500181459

            Prince, M. A., & Carey, K. B. (2010). The malleability of injunctive norms among college students. Addictive Behaviors, 35, 940-947. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2010.06.006

            Baumgartner, S. E., Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). The influence of descriptive and injunctive peer norms on adolescents’ risky sexual online behavior. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14, 753–758. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0510

            Reid, A. E., & Aiken, L. S. (2013). Correcting injunctive norm misperceptions motivates behavior change: A randomized controlled sun protection intervention. Health Psychology, 32, 551-560. doi:10.1037/a0028140 
            Lee, H., & Paek, H. J. (2013). Impact of norm perceptions and guilt on audience response to anti-smoking norm PSAs: The case of Korean male smokers. Health Education Journal, 72, 503-511. doi:10.1177/0017896912450249 

            de Groot, J. I. M., Abrahamse, W., & Jones, K. (2013). Persuasive normative messages: The influence of injunctive and personal norms on using free plastic bags. Sustainability, 5, 1829-1844. doi:10.3390/su5051829

            Cutrona, S. L., Wagner, J., Roblin, D. W., Gaglio, B., Williams, A., Torres-Stone, R., & Mazor, K. M. (2015). E-mail to promote colorectal cancer screening within social networks: Acceptability and content. Journal of Health Communication, 20, 589-598. doi:10.1080/10810730.2015.1012238 

            Pedersen, S., Grønhøj, A., & Thøgersen, J. (2015). Following family or friends. Social norms in adolescent healthy eating. Appetite, 86, 54-60.  doi:10.1016/j.appet.2014.07.030

            Nan, X., & Zhao, X.. (in press as of 2015). The mediating role of perceived descriptive and injunctive norms in the effects of media messages on youth smoking. Journal of Health Communication. doi:10.1080/10810730.2015.1023958





The study concerning avoiding infant hot-water-tap scalding by adjusting the temperature on water heaters:

            Cardenas, M. P., & Simons-Morton, B. G. (1993). The effect of anticipatory guidance on mothers’ self-efficacy and behavioral intentions to prevent burns caused by hot tap water. Patient Education and Counseling, 21, 117-123. doi:10.1016/0738-3991(93)90069-9 


The study concerning boosting patient return screening rates:

            Marcus, A. C., Crane, L. A., Kaplan, C. R, Reading, A. E., Savage, E., Gunning, J., . . . Berek, J. S. (1992). Improving adherence to screening follow-up among women with abnormal pap smears: Results from a large clinic-based trial of three intervention strategies. Medical Care, 30, 216–230.


The study concerning perceived ability to engage in strength training:

            Latimer, A. E., & Ginis, K. A. M. (2005). Change in self-efficacy following a single strength training session predicts sedentary older adults’ subsequent motivation to join a strength training program. American Journal of Health Promotion, 20, 135-138. doi:10.4278/0890-1171-20.2.135


Some studies concerning perceived ability to have safer-sex conversations:

            Thomas, R., Cahill, J., & Loretta, S. (1997). Using an interactive computer game to increase skill and self-efficacy regarding safer sex negotiation: Field test results. Health Education and Behavior, 24, 71-86. doi:10.1177/109019819702400108 

            Noar, S., Carlyle, K., & Cole, C. (2006). Why communication is crucial: Meta-analysis of the relationship between safer sexual communication and condom use. Journal of Health Communication, 11, 365-390.  doi:10.1080/10810730600671862

            Calsyn, D.A., Hatch-Maillette, M.A., Doyle, S.R., Cousins, S., Chen, T., & Godinez, M. (2010). Teaching condom use skills: Practice is superior to observation. Substance Abuse, 31, 231-239. doi:10.1080/08897077.2010.514241

            Yzer, M. C., Fisher, J. D., Bakker, A. B., Siero, F. W., & Misovich, S. J. (1998). The effects of information about AIDS risk and self-efficacy on women’s intentions to engage in AIDS preventive behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28, 1837-1852.


The study concerning perceived ability to implement classroom management techniques:

            Hagen, K. M., Gutkin, T. B., Wilson, C. P., & Oats, R. G. (1998). Using vicarious experience and verbal persuasion to enhance self-efficacy in pre-service teachers: “Priming the pump” for consultation. School Psychology Quarterly, 13, 169-178.


A sampling of studies and discussions concerning perceived behavioral ability (self-efficacy):

            Maibach, E., & Flora, J. A. (1993). Symbolic modeling and cognitive rehearsal: Using video to promote AIDS prevention self-efficacy. Communication Research, 20, 517-545. doi:10.1177/009365093020004002 

            Luszczynska, A., Tryburcy, M., & Schwarzer, R. (2007). Improving fruit and vegetable consumption: A self-efficacy intervention compared with a combined self-efficacy and planning intervention. Health Education Research, 22, 630-638. doi:10.1093/her/cyl133

            Anderson, R. (2009). Comparison of indirect sources of efficacy information in pretesting messages for campaigns to prevent drunken driving. Journal of Public Relations Research, 21,  428-454. doi:10.1080/1062726090296636

            Prestin, A., & Nabi, R. L. (2012). Examining determinants of efficacy judgments as factors in health promotion message design. Communication Quarterly, 60, 520-544. doi:10.1080/01463373.2012.704572

            Gaston, A., Cramp, A., & Prapavessis, H. (2012). Enhancing self-efficacy and exercise readiness in pregnant women. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13, 550-557. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.03.001

            Warner, L. M., Schuz, B., Wolff, J. K., Parschau, L., Wurm, S., & Schwarzer, R. (2014). Sources of self-efficacy for physical activity. Health Psychology, 33, 1298-1308. doi:10.1037/hea0000085







Some review discussions of using prompts as a means of converting intentions into actions:

            Tseng, D. S., Cox, E., Plane, M. B., & Hia, K. (2001). Efficacy of patient letter reminders on cervical cancer screening: A meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16, 563–568.

            Szilagyi, P., Vann, J., Bordley, C., Chelminski, A., Kraus, R., Margolis, P., & Rodewald, L. (2002). Interventions aimed at improving immunization rates. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2002(4), CD003941.

            Fry, J. P., & Neff, R. A. (2009). Periodic prompts and reminders in health promotion and health behavior interventions: Systematic review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 11(2), e16.

            Head, K. J., Noar, S. M., Iannarino, N. T., & Harrington, N. G. (2013). Efficacy of text messaging-based interventions for health promotion: A meta-analysis. Social Science and Medicine, 97, 41-48. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.08.003

            Lin, H. T., & Wu, X. H. (2014). Intervention strategies for improving patient adherence to follow-up in the era of mobile information technology: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 9, e104266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0104266


Some studies concerning using prompts to encourage stair use (instead of, e.g., escalators):

            Andersen, R. E., Franckowiak, S. C., Snyder, J., Bartlett, S. J., & Fontaine, K. R. (1998). Can inexpensive signs encourage the use of stairs? Results from a community intervention. Annals of Internal Medicine, 129, 363-369.

            Olander, E. K., Eves, F. F., & Puig-Ribera, A. (2008). Promoting stair climbing: Stair-riser banners are better than posters… sometimes. Preventive Medicine, 46, 308-310.


The study concerning using prompts to encourage immunization of newborns:

            Alemi, F., Alemagno, S. A., Goldhagen, J., Ash, L., Finkelstein, B., Lavin, A., Butts, J., & Ghadiri, A. (1996). Computer reminders improve on-time immunization rates. Medical Care, 34, OS45-OS51.


Examples of studies relevant to using prompts to encourage handwashing:

            Updegraff, J. A., Emanuel, A. S., Gallagher, K. M., & Steinman, C. T. (2011). Framing flu prevention: An experimental field test of signs promoting hand hygiene during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. Health Psychology, 30, 295-299. doi:10.1037/a0023125

            Ford, E. W., Boyer, B. T., Menachemi, N., & Huerta, T. R. (2013). Increasing hand washing compliance with a simple visual cue. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 1851-1856. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2013.301477


References concerning using prompts to encourage physicians to recommend preventive care measures:

            Shea, S., DuMouchel, W., & Bahamonde, L. (1996). A meta-analysis of 16 randomized controlled trials to evaluate computer-based clinical reminder systems for preventive care in the ambulatory setting. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 3, 399–409.

            Dexheimer, J. W., Talbot, T. R., Sanders, D. L., Rosenbloom, S. T., & Aronsky, D. (2008).  Prompting clinicians about preventive care measures:  A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.  Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 15, 311-318.


Examples of other interventions incorporating prompts as a means of converting intentions into actions:

            Cox, B. S., Cox, A. B., & Cox, D. J. (2000). Motivating signage prompts safety belt use among drivers exiting senior communities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 635–638.

            Lester, R. T., Ritvo, P., Mills, E. J., Kariri, A., Karanja, S., Chung, M. H., . . . Plummer, F.A. (2010). Effects of a mobile phone short message service on antiretroviral treatment adherence in Kenya (WelTel Kenya1): A randomised trial. The Lancet, 376, 1838–1845.

            King, A. J., Williams, E. A., Harrison, T. R., Morgan, S. E., & Havermahl, T. (2012). The “Tell Us Now” campaign for organ donation: Using message immediacy to increase donor registration rates. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 40, 229-246. doi:10.1080/00909882.2012.670258





Some general review discussions of encouraging explicit planning as a means of converting intentions into actions:

            Gollwitzer, P. M., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Implementation intentions and goal achievement: A meta-analysis of effects and processes. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (vol. 38, pp. 69-120). San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(06)38002-1

            Hagger, M. S., & Luszczynska, A. (2014). Implementation intention and action planning interventions in health contexts: State of the research and proposals for the way forward. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, 6, 1-47. doi:10.1111/aphw.12017


The vitamin-C-pill study about explicit planning: 

            Sheeran, P., & Orbell, S. (1999). Implementation intentions and repeated behaviour: Augmenting the predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 349-369.


The workplace safety training course study about explicit planning:

            Sheeran, P., & Silverman, M. (2003). Evaluation of three interventions to promote workplace health and safety: Evidence for the utility of implementation intentions. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 2153–2163.


Some other examples of studies concerning encouraging explicit planning as a means of converting intentions into actions:

            Milkman, K. L., Beshears, J., Choi, J. J., Laibson, D., & Madrian, B. C. (2011). Using implementation intentions prompts to enhance influenza vaccination rates. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 108, 10415–10420. doi:10.1073/pnas.1103170108

            Armitage, C. J., Reid, J. C., & Spencer, C. P. (2011). Evidence that implementation intentions reduce single-occupancy car use in a rural population: Moderating effects of compliance with instructions. Transportmetrica, 7, 455–466. doi:10.1080/18128602.2010.505591

            Koring, M., Richert, J., Lippke, S., Parschau, L., Reuter, T., & Schwarzer, R. (2012). Synergistic effects of planning and self-efficacy on physical activity. Health Education and Behavior, 39, 152–158. doi:10.1177/1090198111417621

            Guillaumie, L., Godin, G., Manderscheid, J.-C., Spitz, E., & Muller, L. (2012). The impact of self-efficacy and implementation intentions-based interventions on fruit and vegetable intake among adults. Psychology & Health, 27, 30–50. doi:10.1080/08870446.2010.541910





Some general review discussions of making people feel bad (feel guilty or hypocritical, experience cognitive dissonance) as a means of converting intentions into actions:

            Stone, J. (2012). Consistency as a basis for behavioral interventions: Using hypocrisy and cognitive dissonance to motivate behavior change. In B. Gawronski & F. Strack (Eds.), Cognitive consistency: A fundamental principle in social cognition (pp. 326-347). New York: Guilford Press.

            Freijy, T., & Kothe, E. J. (2013). Dissonance-based interventions for health behaviour change: A systematic review. British Journal of Health Psychology, 18, 310-337. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12035 


The home energy conservation study:

            Kantola, S. J., Syme, G. J., & Campbell, N. A. (1984). Cognitive dissonance and energy conservation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 416-421. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.69.3.416


Examples of other studies concerning making people feel bad (feel guilty or hypocritical, experience cognitive dissonance) as a means of converting intentions into actions:

      Aronson, E., Fried, C., & Stone, J. (1991). Overcoming denial and increasing the intention to use condoms through the induction of hypocrisy. American Journal of Public Health, 81, 1636-1638.

            Aitken, C. K., McMahon, T. A., Wearing, A. J., & Finlayson, B. L. (1994). Residential water use: Predicting and reducing consumption. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 136-158. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.1994.tb00562.x

            Fointiat, V. (2004). “I know what I have to do, but...... “: When hypocrisy leads to behavioral change. Social Behavior and Personality, 32, 741-746.


Review discussions of research concerning the idea that more explicit attempts to arouse guilt are generally less persuasive than less explicit attempts:

            O’Keefe, D. J. (2000). Guilt and social influence. Communication Yearbook, 23, 67-101.

            O’Keefe, D. J. (2002). Guilt as a mechanism of persuasion. In J. P. Dillard & M. Pfau (Eds.), The persuasion handbook: Developments in theory and practice (pp. 329-344). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. doi:10.4135/9781412976046.n17



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Northwestern University