Message factors (2 of 4)
4. (a) What is a one-sided message? What is a two-sided message? Distinguish two varieties of two-sided messages. What is a refutational two-sided message? What is a nonrefutational two-sided message? (b) Comparing one-sided messages and refutational two-sided messages, which generally is more persuasive? Which generally is perceived as more credible? Identify an implicit limiting condition on the occurrence of these effects (these differences). (c) What general differences, if any, are there in persuasiveness and perceived credibility between one-sided messages and nonrefutational two-sided messages? (d) In advertising contexts, how do one-sided messages and nonrefutational two-sided messages differ in persuasiveness? How do they differ in credibility? (e) Outside advertising contexts (that is, in “nonadvertising” messages), how do one-sided messages and nonrefutational two-sided messages differ in persuasiveness? How do they differ in credibility? (f) What might explain the observed differences between advertising messages and other persuasive messages in how nonrefutational two-sided messages work? Explain how skepticism about advertising might underlie the different effects of nonrefutational two-sided messages in advertising contexts as opposed to nonadvertising contexts.