Social judgment theory (2 of 3)
8. (a) What are assimilation and contrast effects (broadly speaking)? (b) What is a contrast effect? (c) What is an assimilation effect? (d) What is the rule of thumb concerning when each effect will occur?
9. (a) What is the relationship between ego-involvement and assimilation and contrast effects? (b) Explain how contrast effects reduce the effectiveness of persuasive messages; explain how assimilation effects reduce the effectiveness of persuasive messages. (c) What kinds of messages are subject to assimilation and contrast effects? (d) How can a persuader minimize assimilation and contrast effects? (e) Explain how political campaigns can exploit assimilation effects concerning positions on policy issues.
10. (a) What does it mean to say that two factors (variables) are confounded? Explain how the use of the known-groups procedure confounded extremity and involvement in social judgment research. (b) Explain how social judgment theory's concept of involvement is confused.
Belief-based approaches (1 of 2)
1. (a) Explain the general idea of belief-based approaches to attitude. (b) What is a salient belief? How can one identify a person's salient beliefs about a given object? Explain how, in a survey context, one might identify the modal (average) salient beliefs about an object.