1. Explain the general idea behind functional approaches to attitude.
2. (a) In Katz's classic analysis of attitude function, what four attitude functions are identified? (b) Explain the utilitarian function. What techniques are best adapted to changing attitudes serving a utilitarian function? (c) Explain the ego-defensive function. What techniques are best adapted to changing attitudes serving an ego-defensive function? (d) Explain the value-expressive function. Under what conditions are attitudes serving a value-expressive function likely to be susceptible to change? (e) Explain the knowledge function. What is the primary mechanism of change for attitudes that serve a knowledge function?
3. (a) Is there a consensus about a particular typology of attitude functions? Is there a broad distinction (amongst functions) that is common to alternative functional typologies? (b) Explain symbolic functions of attitude. Explain instrumental functions of attitude.
4. Describe the most common procedure for assessing the function of a given attitude. What is “free-response” data?
5. According to functional approaches, what is the key to effective persuasion? Explain.
6. (a) What is self-monitoring? Describe (broadly) the characteristics of high- and low-self-monitors. (b) Describe image-oriented advertising appeals. Describe product-quality-oriented advertising appeals. (c) Are high self-monitors generally more persuaded by image-oriented or by product-quality-oriented appeals? Are low self-monitors generally more persuaded by image-oriented or by product-quality-oriented appeals? (d) Why are image-oriented and product-quality-oriented appeals differentially persuasive for low- and high-self-monitors? (e) Explain how advertisers might tailor appeals to different media outlets based on these ideas.
7. (a) Explain how the nature of the attitude object influences attitude functions. Give examples of objects for which attitudes likely serve a generally instrumental function; give examples of objects for which attitudes likely serve a generally symbolic function. (b) Are image-oriented and product-quality-oriented persuasive appeals likely to be equally effective for these different sorts of objects? Explain.
(a) Are belief-based models concerned with the content (as opposed to the
evaluation) of beliefs? Do functional approaches explain how beliefs combine to
yield attitudes? (b) Explain the complementary relationship of functional
approaches and belief-based models.
9. (a) Explain how objects can differ in the degree to which they accommodate multiple attitude functions. Give examples of “multifunctional” attitude objects. (b) For what sorts of objects will self-monitoring differences play a larger role in determining the relative effectiveness of image-oriented and product-quality-oriented appeals? Explain. Identify circumstances under which a persuader will not need to know the audience’s level of self-monitoring.